The effects of eccentric training on lower limb flexibility: a systematic review
- Correspondence to Kieran O’Sullivan, Department of Clinical Therapies, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland;
Contributors KOS and SMA were involved in conception and design. KOS and NDB independently reviewed the literature. KOS/SMA extracted the study data. SMA and NDB were involved in rating the literature, with KOS acting to mediate disagreements in ratings. All authors were involved in data analysis and interpretation, as well as preparing the manuscript for publication.
- Received 4 December 2011
- Accepted 8 March 2012
- Published Online First 20 April 2012
Background Reduced flexibility has been documented in athletes with lower limb injury, however, stretching has limited evidence of effectiveness in preventing injury or reducing the risk of recurrence. In contrast, it has been proposed that eccentric training can improve strength and reduce the risk of injury, and facilitate increased muscle flexibility via sarcomerogenesis.
Objectives This systematic review was undertaken to examine the evidence that eccentric training has demonstrated effectiveness as a means of improving lower limb flexibility.
Study appraisal and synthesis methods Six electronic databases were systematically searched by two independent reviewers to identify randomised clinical trials comparing the effectiveness of eccentric training to either a different intervention, or a no-intervention control group. Studies evaluating flexibility using both joint range of motion (ROM) and muscle fascicle length (FL) were included. Six studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, and were appraised using the PEDro scale. Differences in the muscles studied, and the outcome measures used, did not allow for pooled analysis.
Results There was consistent, strong evidence from all six trials in three different muscle groups that eccentric training can improve lower limb flexibility, as assessed using either joint ROM or muscle FL.
Conclusion The results support the hypothesis that eccentric training is an effective method of increasing lower limb flexibility. Further research is required to compare the increased flexibility obtained after eccentric training to that obtained with static stretching and other exercise interventions.
Funding One author (KOS) is supported by a Health Research Board of Ireland research fellowship.
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.